Astronomical cabinet was founded at Kharkiv University at 1808, the cathedra of astronomy was founded at 1824, and the Astronomical Observatory at the University was created at 1883 by Prof. G. V. Levitsky. The Scientific Research Institute of Astronomy was founded at 2002 on the base of the Astronomical Observatory, with which the department of astronomy cooperates very productively. Using and creating large amounts of astronomical data obtained by ground and space telescopes and the adoption of new information technologies in the educational process led in 2013 to change the name of the department to the «Department of Astronomy and Space Computer Science». From 1894 to 1915 the cathedra of astronomy and Astronomical observatory were headed by Prof. L. O. Struve, the grandson of the founder and first header of the Pulkovo Observatory V. Ja. Struve. Prof. L. O. Struve was the founder of Kharkiv school of positional astronomy. The Honored worker of science of Ukraine N.N. Evdokimov, the Laureate of State prize of USSR V. V. Kavrajsky, the Honored worker of Science and Technology of Russian Federation B.I. Kudrevich, and the Honored worker of Science of Ukraine B.P. Ostashchenko- Kudriavtsev were the representatives of this school. The next outstanding astrophysicists of XX century were the pupils of Prof. L.O. Struve: academician of USSR Academy of Sciences V.G. Fesenkov, academician of Ukraine Academy of Sciences N.P. Barabashov, one of founder theoretic astrophysics, director of the Pulkovo Observatory Prof. B.P. Gerasimovich, the President of International Astronomical Union and director of some known US observatories Prof. O.L. Struve. The studies of the physical conditions at the Moon and Solar System planets were started by V.G. Fesenkov and were continued by N.P. Barabashov, who created the worldwide known school of planetology. The data obtained at Kharkiv about the surface of the Moon, surface and atmosphere of Mars, atmospheres of Venus and giant planets played the important role at the first stage of planet investigations by space missions. Astronomers of KhNU took part in preparing and data processing of the all Soviet space programs of investigations for Moon, Mars, Venus and Halley comet.
The astronomers KhNU have wide contacts with many science institutions in Ukraine, Russia and other countries of FSU, USA, Germany, Italy, French, Sweden, Finland, Poland and Czech Republic.
Now 33 objects in Solar System (craters on the Moon, Mars and Venus, minor planets) are named the names of alumni of the cathedra of astronomy of KhNU.
Books published by the Department of Astronomy in conjunction with the Institute of Astronomy.
Field of research – physics of the Sun, planets, Moon, minor planets of Solar System, positional astronomy, star astronomy, gravitational lensing of quasars et cet.
The training of astronomers at Kharkiv Karazin National University was performed in a frame of speciality “Astronomy” on the cathedra of astronomy of the physical department. Admission - 15 persons. The admission is performed also on commercial base. Entrance examination - physics and Ukrainian bang (test). The medallists, winners of republic Olympiads and winners of regional and national Competitions of MAS have admission preferences. The students will get the diploma of bachelor by speciality “Physics” after four years of teaching and after one year else – the diploma of master’s degree in Astronomy. There is a possibility to get a second high education (correspondence course) on economics school and foreign language school. The astronomy students get the fundamental training by the general and theoretical physics, mathematics, computer sciences and they study the spherical astronomy, position astronomy, celestial mechanics, general and theoretical astrophysics, stellar and extragalactic astronomy, computer sciences in astronomy, methods of astronomical researches, cosmology, perform three educational practical works and two research practical works in SRI of Astronomy and Chuguev Observation Station, Institute of Radio Astronomy of NASU, Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory, Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and Main Astronomical Observatory of NASU. Since 2008 in department of astronomy specialization «Space computer sciences» was created. Main topic is to teach students to process the great volumes of science information using new computer technologies. In the end of the teaching the students fulfil and defend the diploma of the Master’s degree in different field of Astronomy with using new information technologies. The departament (with SRI of Astronomy) has the postgraduate teaching on specialties “Heliophysics and Solar System Physics”, “Astrophysics and Radio Astronomy” and “Positional Astronomy and Celestial Mechanics”.